Notes on Computer organization and design
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- 1 Computer abstractions and technology
- 2 Instructions: Language of the computer
- 3 Arithmetic for computers
- 4 The processor
- 5 Large and fast: exploiting the memory hierarchy
- 6 Storage and other I/O topics
- 7 Multicores, multiprocessors, and clusters
Computer abstractions and technology
- Desktop computer: A computer designed for use by an individual, usually incorporating a graphics display, a keybord, and a mouse.
- Server: A computer used for running larger programs for multiple users, often simultaneously, and typically accessed only via a network.
- Supercomputer: A class of computers with the highest performance and cost.
- Embedded computer: A computer inside another device used for running one predetermined application or collection of software.
Below your program
- Between the hardware and the application software, there is system software.
- System software provides services that are commonly useful, including operating systems, compilers, loaders, and assemblers.
- Operating system is a supervising program that manages the resources of a computer for the benefit of the programs that run on that computer. Examples of operating systems in use today are Linux, MacOs, and Windows.
- A Compiler translates a program written in a high-level language such as C into instructions that the hardware can execute.
- A bit is a binary digit.
- An instruction is a command consisting a sequence of bits that the computer hardware understands and obeys. All the instructions constitute the machine language.
- An assembly language is a symbolic representation of machine instructions. A program that translates assembly language to machine language is called an assembler.
- A high-level programming language is a portable language that is composed of words and algebraic notation that can be translated by a compiler into assembly language.
- Advantages of a high-level programming language to an assembly language:
- Easier to write and read.
- More portable.